Ācārya explained the veiling power of māyā causes two levels of mistake. First is internal, mistaken mind to be the seer me, which caused the sense of limitation about the Self. Second is external, mistaken changes name and form to be real, therefore seemingly limited I always search and depend on limited name and form for fulfilment and security. All the sorrow are caused by the expectation towards the un-expectable. This is called samsāra. One need to have the discrimination knowledge between Self and non- Self (ātma-anātma-vivekah) in the individual level and between real and unreal (satyam-mithya vivekah) in the total level, then one can release from this spell of māyā.
These discrimination / separation only can be done through cognitive understanding. These mixed up can not be separated physically, because everything we experience here is under the realm of creation. Therefore, how we can be released from the life of samsāra is depend on how we see this world.
asti bhāti priyaṃ rūpaṃ nāma cetyaṃśapañcakam । ādyatrayaṃ brahmarūpaṃ jagadrūpaṃ tato dvayam II 20 II
“It is, it shines, it is dear, it has form, and a name” – are the five aspects (of every entity). The first three belong to Reality; the latter two belong to the World.
This creation is subject for experience. When I experience the book, means I experience the existence of the book. The is-ness (existence) of the book is exist together with the knowledge (evident) of the book. We can not talk about the existence of an entity without the knowledge of that entity. Only when an object is knowable then we can say it is exist. Even when we say that i don't know about certain language, the existing of that language is there and the ignorance about the language is also there. Therefore every entity is having asti - existence and bhāti - evident. Even though when the book (name and form) is removed, the is-ness and the knowledge of the book continues to be. As our experience, when name and form is removed, the existence is also gone. Just like when a pot is broken, we say that pot is no more exist. Actually only the form of the pot is not perceivable by us. Its existence is in the un-manifest form which is clay. The form of the pot is gone, but its existence continue to be. Similarly, existence is experienced when the name and form is there. Even when we say nothing is there, means we are experience nothing-ness. When nothing is there means nothing-ness is exist. Just like in our deep sleep state, it is not that we don't have experience there, but we experience nothing-ness. Existence is experienced only if the name and form is there, but when the name and form is gone, existence continue to be.
Experience is also priyam - dear. One's dearest is oneself alone, everything is desired for the sake of oneself. Even though sometimes we do things for the sake of others, but it is also to satisfy our will. When we are experiencing happiness, we are having the oneness with the source of happiness. Every degree of happiness is increasing when the obstacles between me and the source of our happiness are dropped. The subject-object devision is dropped. When there is no subject-object devision, means the duality is not there, I am not being limited my another thing. Ultimate priyam is there only there is no limitation. It is ananta - limitless.
Everything under this realm of experienced is having these existence, evident, dear, name and form as its components. The first three: existence-sat, evident-cit and dear-ānanda are the reality - satyam Brahman, whereas name and form are dependent material world - mithya jagad.
khavāyvagnijalorvīṣu devatiryaṅnarādiṣu । abhinnāḥ saccidānandāḥ bhidyate rūpanāmani II 21 II
In space, air, fire, water and earth; in Deities, animals, man and all others; Existence, Knowledge and Bliss is no different; only their names and forms differ.
This verse is to point out that all pervading ātma is one and non-dual. Because in the vision of Sāmkya, the universe is consisting of two realities, purusah - consciousness and prakrti - matter. Initially both vision look the same, the world is the result of consciousnes with matter nama-rūpa. But the slight different is that in the vision of Sāmkya, consciousness and matter are two different entities which are having the same reality. On the other hand the vision of Vedānta pointed out a very important point that consciousness and nama-rūpa are not separated entities, and they are belong to different degree of reality.
Why we need to very fussy about this slight different between these two views? Because this slight different is huge different between duality and non-duality. Only if I - consciousness is non-dual, pervading in and through everything without exception, and this limitless nature is me alone, then moksa - liberation is possible. If there is an entity which is different from me (duality), I will be limited by that entity. A limited entity is limited only no matter how much we are adding on. Unless the sense of limitation is bhranti - wrong conclusion, then one can be liberated from this delusion by the correct knowledge of oneself being limitless consciousness. If we try to tolerate this different, all our effort to pursue this knowledge will have no result.
We need to see sat-cit-ānanda is equally present - abhinnāḥ saccidānandāḥ in all insentient things such as space, air, fire, water and earth (as the basic component of all the materials) - khavāyvagnijalorvīṣu, and also sentient beings like deities, man, animals, etc. (either superior or inferior) - devatiryaṅnarādiṣu. All beings appear difference only in name and form - bhidyate rūpanāmani.
This verse completed the central topic of the text, which is the cause and solution for samsāra. Before we proceed to the next topic, it is important for us to see the flow how the teaching is being implied. First, viveka - discrimination knowledge needs to be done on the individual level. I the seer is different from the seen - body-mind-sense-complex, therefore I will not superimpose their limitation on limitless me. Second, we need to do discrimination on the total level. Changeless satyam Brahman is different from changes mithya name and form. Because of knowing all the name and form are mithya in nature, does not have its own independent reality, therefore we will not expect these limited materials to give me limitless fulfilment. But this understanding is not complete if it is stop here. With this much understanding, we will end up feeling arrogant and disliking the world. Because bheda - the difference is always in our mind, therefore I need to know I - sat-cit-ānanda is equally present in all. It is taught by Srī-krsna in Gītā chapter 9th verse 4th:
mayā tatam-idam sarvam jagad avyaktamūrtinā I matsthāni sarva-bhūtani na cāham tesvavasthitah II Gītā 9 : 4
This entire world is pervaded by me whose form cannot be objectified. All beings have their being in me and I am not based in them.
All beings have their being in me, without me - ātmā-svarūpa, there is no being fit for transection, because I am the basis of the entire creation. Therefore because of me sat-svarūpa-ātmā, all are situated as one endowed with existence, therefore all are said being remain in me.
But I am not based in them, I am not contained in those being ( not physically situated), because there is not physical contact between me and those being which usually happened in the object which is has form. There is deprived of supported-support relationship, just like the relationship of any object in the space. Because there is no real sambandha - relationship between I - Consciousness and nama-rūpa.