Q: Damaḥ kaḥ? What is dama?
A: Cakṣurādi-bāhyēndriya-nigrahaḥ I
It is the control / mastery over external organs such as eyes etc.
Control here doesn't mean suppression. Any form of suppression is having the potential to explode later. Therefore controlling here means intelligently channelizing them. Ours Jñāna Indriya - organs of perception are naturally outward going to collect data for our mind. When this prevention can not be done, therefore we need be selective for the material which go in to our mind. Chose those which is benefits for our pursue. In the same way for our karma indriya - organs of actions, need to be train. Mastery over the speech organs is one of the very important one. Speech need to come through 4 filters: 1. Ahimsa - non hurting 2. Satyam - truth 3. Priyam - pleasing
4. Hitam - serve some purpose for the listener
When sama is failed, we need to maintain dama. Just like when we are angry, our sama is failed, so we need to control from dama by choosing not to continue the conversation to avoid further damage. By practicing dama, we are trained to have space between us and the problems, so we will have a clear mind to handle them. Dama help us to strengthen and maintain Śama.
Q: Uparamaḥ kaḥ? What is uparama? A: Svadharmānuṣṭhānaṁ ēva I
Observance of one’s own dharma (duties).
It is a withdrawn of the tendency to do what is not to be done and not doing what is to be done. Why the tendency is there? Because of rāga - likes and dvesa - dislike. If our duty is what we likes, we will do it effortlessly. In the same way if duty is what we don't like, then it will be very heavy for us to do. Therefore by bringing the attitude of karma yoga in our lives, things will be done easier by us. Another meaning of uparama means maintaining the peace of mind which has been acquired through śama. This higher degree of Uparamah is when the mind just focus on śravaṇam - listen to the teaching, mananam - reflect upon what one has heard and nidhidhyāsanam - assimilate what one has understood to one's life. Therefore monastic life itself is called uparamah.