Analysis of mind

Up to verse 4th, we can draw some conclusion about the qualification of inertness which having dependent existence upon consciousness. They are:

1. Seen - being object of experience.

2. Made up of matter (material).

3. Has varieties of attributes, such as sound, touch, form, taste and smell.

4. Subject to change.

5. Temporary.


How about ātmā is also having the borrowed consciousness from another entity just like all the previous relative seers? No. The confirmation for ātmā as the ultimate seer is explained in the next verse.


nodeti nāstametyeṣā na vṛddhiṃ yāti na kṣayam । svayaṃ vibhātyathānanyāni bhāsayet sādhanaṃ vinā II 5 II

This (Witness) does not rise, nor does It set; It does not increase, nor does It decrease; It shines by itself and then others does It illumine, without any external aid.


The ultimate seer which is called witness does not rise - na udeti, means it is never born (does not have origination or creation). Therefore it also does not end, which is never destroyed - na astam. Thus ātmā is not limited by time. When we see a conscious being is born and die, what we are seeing is only the inert body which is having the borrowed consciousness. Consciousness is never born and never die; never limited by time.

Consciousness does not increase/expand - na vrddhim nor decrease - na ksayam, means it does not have form which need space to be fit in. Thus consciousness is not limited by space; it is all pervading.


Just like the sun illumines the entire world without external aid - athānanyāni bhāsayet sādhanam vinā from another source of light (self-luminous - svayam vibhāti). Consciousness being the ultimate seer making the entire world become evident. In the same time it lend the consciousness to the mind to make senses and entire world evident, just like the sun lending the light to the moon to light up the world at night.


By knowing ātmā is the ultimate seer and never be seen, we are mumuksu who had listened to the teaching from śruti "tarati śokam ātmavit" - "the knower of ātmā crosses sorrow", will no more expect to experience ātmā, but the fact is that ātmā is in and through every experience.


The composition of the individual - jīva was talked about in last 5 verses in the form of two relative seers and the ultimate seer. Now from verse 6th to 12th, the mechanism behind these three seers is being discussed. How is the formation and function of each seer is talked about.


Of ultimate seer - śaksi is never formed in time, always presents and illumines the mind. Now in verse 6th, ācārya take-up the relatives-seer "mind" to analyse.


cicchāyā''veśato buddhau bhānaṃ dhīstu dvidhā sthitā । ekāhaṅkṛtiranyā syāt antaḥkaraṇarūpiṇī II 6 II

The reflection of Consciousness that enters into the mind, makes it conscious. The mind is of two folds: One is the I-ness, and the other is of the nature of the inner instrument (thought).


The mind made up of sattva-guna of the five basic element, even though being inert in nature, but it is having the quality as the qualified medium to reflect consciousness, therefore the borrowed consciousness of the mind from ātmā is direct. Just like the clear water which reflected the image of the sun, the reflection of the sun is said to be enter in to the water. It is not physically enter. There is no other entity called reflection of the sun which is really enter into the water body. Because it was not there as a part of the water medium, then appears to there, therefore it is said to be enter. Just like when the room is empty then it is filled up with people, we are saying that people enter into the room. We will never say that the space enter to the room, because the space is considered to be same entity as room. Therefore the availability of consciousness in the mind is called as reflected consciousness.


When the reflected consciousness is formed in the mind, two things happen. First the mind become known (evident) and in the same time it illumines senses and sense-objects (making others evident). Based on these two functions, ācārya divided the mind into two folds. One part is ahankrtih - mental substance (where the I-ness is) and another part is antahkarana - the thought part. Just like water in the lake, even though water is just one, but there is surface part which is waving (compare to the thought part - vrttiamśa) and the bottom part which does not wave (compare to substance part - dravyāmśa).


When sight is taken place in the mind, the thought part of the mind goes out and pervades the external object to experience the object, where else the mental substance remains within. Just like when we throw the torch light on an object, the source of the torch light remain on the hand, but the beam goes out to illumine the object.

Because of entry of reflected consciousness, the mind become known as the mental substance (I am), also become illumine external object as the function of the thought.


Because of the reflected consciousness, the inert mind become as though sentient and even can lend the sentiency to the senses. How close/strong is the relationship between reflected consciousness and mind, which caused so much identification in this point (sentiency)? The 7th verse is explaining how close the connection between the mind and reflected consciousness.


chāyā'haṅkārayoraikyaṃ taptāyaḥpiṇḍavanmatam । tadahaṅkāratādātmyāt dehaścetanatāmagāt II 7 II

The identity of the reflected Consciousness and the I-ness is considered to be like that of a heated iron ball. That I-ness, due to identification (with the body), lends its consciousness to the body.


The connection between reflected consciousness and the substance mind are very intimate and inseparable just like a burned iron ball. Being placed in the fire, the heat and the glow of the fire is penetrating the entire iron ball. Light and heat are the nature of fire, but they are interpenetrate into every part of the iron ball, giving the heat and light for the iron ball as though they are it's nature. Just like the fire and the iron ball are very well mixed-up, the mixing up between reflected consciousness and the mind is causing the sentiency of the mind, and in the same time the body borrows the sentiency from the mind.


These three seer are mixing up so well, therefore we couldn't see the ultimate seer properly. In our daily experience we always think only what is see, touch, taste, heard and smell by me are real and the happiness, sorrow, doubt, knowing by my mind are real. But we will never experience what is behind senses and mind. This mixed up can not be separated physically, like we are separating red and green beans. Therefore by this knowledge of Vivekah, we should not obsessed with what we are experienced.

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